Sun Lab

Last Updated: 2018-10-30

1. Research

2. Publications

3. Videos showing insect flying and wing motion (kinematics)

 

Research

    Our research aims to understand the intricacies of unsteady aerodynamics and animal flight dynamics through insect flight. We are studying the wing and body kinematics, unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, energy expenditure, and flight dynamic stability and control of insect flight.

Publications

Review papers

1.     Mao Sun, Insect flight dynamics: Stability and control, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 615.2014.

2.     M Sun, High-lift generation and power requirements of insect flight, Fluid Dynamics Research, 37 (2005), 21-39.

Regular papers

1.     Cheng, X. & Sun, M. Very small insects use novel wing flapping and drag principle to generate the weight-supporting vertical force. J. Fluid Mech. 855, 646–670 (2018).

2.     Shen, C., Liu, Y. & Sun, M. Lift and power in fruitflies in vertically-ascending flight. Bioinspir. Biomim. 13, 056008 (2018).

3.     Luo, G., Du, G. & Sun, M. Effects of Stroke Deviation on Aerodynamic Force Production of a Flapping Wing. AIAA J. 56, 25–35 (2018).

4.     Shen, C. & Sun, M. Wing and body kinematics measurement and force analyses of landing in fruit flies. Bioinspir. Biomim. 13, 016004 (2018).

5.     Liu, L. & Sun, M. The added mass forces in insect flapping wings. J. Theor. Biol. 437, 45–50 (2018).

6.     Chen, M. W., Wu, J. H. & Sun, M. Generation of the pitch moment during the controlled flight after takeoff of fruitflies. PLoS One 12, 1–20 (2017).

7.     H.J. Zhu, M. Sun, Unsteady aerodynamic force mechanisms of a hoverfly hovering with a short stroke-amplitude, Physics of Fluids, 29 (2017) 081901.

8.     Cheng X, Sun M., Aerodynamic forces and flows of the full and partial clap-fling motions in insects. PeerJ (2017) 5:e3002.

9.     Xue Guang Meng, Yanpeng Liu, Mao Sun, Aerodynamics of Ascending Flight in Fruit Flies, J. Bionic. Eng. 14 (2017) :75–87.

10. Xue Guang Meng and Mao Sun, Wing and body kinematics of forward flight in drone-flies, Bioinspiration & Biomimetics.(2016).

11. Xue Guang Meng, Mao Sun, Wing Kinematics, Aerodynamic Forces and Vortex-wake Structures in Fruit-flies in Forward Flight , J. Bionic. Eng.13(2016): 478–490.

12. Xin ChengMao SunWing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flightScientific Reports(2016).

13. Chong Shen, Mao Sun, Power Requirements of Vertical Flight in the Dronefly,J. Bionic. Eng.12(2015):227-237 .   

14. Xue Guang Meng, Mao Sun, Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies, Phys. Fluids, 27, 031901(2015).

15. Jiang Hao Wu, Mao Sun, Wing Kinematics in a Hovering Dronefly Minimize Power Expenditure, J. Insect Sci., 14(159), 2014.

16. Chong Shen, Mao Sun, Dynamic flight stability of a model dronefly in vertical flight, Acta Mech. Sinica, 30(6), 2014: 828-838.

17. Mao Wei Chen, Mao Sun, Wing/body kinematics measurement and force and moment analyses of the takeoff flight of fruitflies, Acta Mech. Sinica, 30(4), 2014: 495-506.

18. Xu, N. & Sun, M. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering. Bioinspiration and Biomimetics 9, (2014).

19. Na Xu, Mao Sun, Lateral flight stability of two hovering model insects, J. Bionic. Eng., 11 (2014) 439–448.

20. Bin Liang, Mao Sun, Dynamic flight stability of a hovering model dragonfly, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 348 (2014), 100-112.

21. Mao Wei Chen, Mao Sun, Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies, J. R. Soc. Interface, 10(89), 2013: 20130808. Supplement.

22. Bin Liang, Mao Sun, Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects, J. R. Soc. Interface, 10(85), 2013: 20130269. Supplement.

23. Xue Guang Meng, Mao Sun, Aerodynamic Effects of Corrugation at Gliding Flight at Low Reynolds Numbers, Phys. Fluids, 25 (2013) 071905.

24. Bin Liang, Mao Sun, Aerodynamic Interactions Between Wing and Body of a Model Insect in Forward Flight and Maneuvers, J. Bionic. Eng., 10 (2013) 19–27.

25. Na Xu, Mao Sun, Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model bumblebee in hovering and forward flight, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 319 (2013), 102-119.

26. Xiaolei Mou, Mao Sun, Dynamic Flight Stability of a Model Hoverfly in Inclined-Stroke-Plane Hovering, J. Bionic. Eng., 9 (2012) 294–303.

27. Yan Lai Zhang, Jiang Hao Wu, Mao Sun, Lateral dynamic flight stability of hovering insects: theory vs. numerical simulation, Acta Mech. Sinica, 28(1), 2012: 221-231.

28. Jiang Hao Wu and Mao Sun, Floquet stability analysis of the longitudinal dynamics of two hovering model insects, J. R. Soc. Interface, 9(74), 2012: 2033-2046. Supplement.

29. Gang Du, M Sun, Aerodynamic effects of corrugation and deformation in flapping wings of hovering hoverflies, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 300 (2012), 19-28.

30. XG Meng, L Xue, M Sun, Aerodynamic effects of corrugation in flapping insect wings in hovering flight, J. Exp. Biol., 214 (3), 2011: 432-444.

31. XL Mou, YP Liu, M Sun, Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics  of hovering true hoverflies, J. Exp. Biol., 214 (17), 2011:2832-2844.

32. Zhang Y, Sun, M. Control for small-speed lateral flight in a model insect. Bioinspir. Biomim., 6 (3), 2011: 036003.

33. XG Meng, M Sun, Aerodynamic effects of corrugation in flapping insect wings in forward flight, J. Bionic. Eng., 8 (2), 2011: 140-150.

34. B Liang, M Sun, Aerodynamic interactions between the contralateral wings and the wings and body of a model insect at hovering and small-speed motions. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 214 (4), 2011:396-409

35. Zhang Y, Sun, M. Dynamic flight stability of a hovering model insect: lateral motion. Acta Mech. Sinica, 26, 2010:175-190.

36. Zhang Y, Sun, M. Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of free-flight maneuvers in drone-flies. Acta Mech. Sinica, 26(3), 2010: 371-382.

37. Zhang Y, Sun, M. Dynamic flight stability of hovering model insects: theory vs. simulation using equations of motion coupled with Navier-Stokes equations. Acta Mech. Sinica, 26, 2010:509-520.

38. G Du, Mao Sun, Effects of wing deformation on aerodynamic forces in hovering hoverflies, J. Exp. Biol., 213(13), 2010: 2273-2283.

39. Wu, J. H., Zhang, Y. L. and Sun, M. (2009). Hovering of model insects: simulation by coupling equations of motion with Navier-Stokes equations. Journal of Experimental Biology 212, 3313-3329.

40. Yu, X. and Sun, M. (2009). A computational study of the wing-wing and wing-body interactions of a model insect. Acta Mechanica Sinica 25, 421-431.  

41. Xiong, Y. and Sun, M. (2009). Stabilization control of a bumblebee in hovering and forward flight. Acta Mechanica Sinica 25, 13-21.

42. Wu, J. H. and Sun, M. (2009). Control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect. Acta Mechanica Sinica 25, 295-302.

43. Liu,YP, Sun, M. Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of hovering drone-flies, J. Exp. Biol., 211, 2008: 2014-2025.

44. Xiong Y., Sun M, Dynamic flight stability of a bumble bee in forward flight, Acta Mech. Sinica, 24, 2008: 25-36.

45. Du G, Sun, M. The effects of unsteady deformation of a flapping wing on its aerodynamic forces. Appl. Math. Mech , 29 (6), 2008: 731-744 [PDF]

46. Sun, M.,Wang JK, Stabilization control of a hovering model insect, J. Exp. Biol., 210, 2007: 2714-2722.

47. Sun, M., Wang, J. K. and Xiong Y. Dynamic flight stability of hovering insects. Acta Mech. Sinica, 23, 2007: 231-246.

48. Huang H, Sun M., Dragonfly forewing-hindwing interaction at various flight speeds and wing-phasing. AIAA J., vol.45, no.2,2007: 508-511

49. Sun, M., Yu X., Aerodynamic force generation in hovering flight in a tiny insect. AIAA J., 44, 2006, 1532-1540

50. Sun, M., High-lift generation and power requirements of insect flight, Fluid Dynamics Research, 37, 2005: 21-39

51. Sun M., Xiong Y. Dynamic flight stability of a hovering bumble bee, J. Exp. Biol.,208, 2005: 447-459

52. Luo GY, Sun M. The effects of corrugation and wing planform on the aerodynamic force production of sweeping model insect wings. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 21, 2005: 531-541

53. Wang JK, Sun M. A computational study of the aerodynamics and forewing-hindwing interaction of a model dragonfly in forward flight, J. Exp. Biol.,208, 2005: 3785-3804

54. Wu JH, Sun M. The influence of the wake of a flapping wing on the production of aerodynamic forces. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 21, 2005:411-418.

55. Wu JH, Sun, M. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and power requirements in a bumblebee in forward flight. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 21, 2005:207-217 [PDF]

56. Wu JH, Sun M. Unsteady aerodynamic forces of a flapping wing. J. Exp. Biol.,207: 2004, 1137-1150

57. Sun, M., Lan S. L. A computational study of the aerodynamic forces and power requirements of dragonfly Aeschna juncea hovering, J. Exp. Biol.,207, 2004: 1887-1901

58. Sun, M, Wu JH. Large aerodynamic force generation by a sweeping wing at low Reynolds number. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 20, 2004:24-31 [PDF]

59. Sun M., Wu J. H., Lift generation and power requirements of a fruit fly in forward flight with modeled wing motion. J. Exp. Biol., 206, 2003, 3065-3083

60. Sun M, Du G. Lift and power requirements of hovering insect flight. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 19, 2003, 458-469 [PDF]

61. Sun M, Yu X. Flows around two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation and translation and subsequent clap. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 19, 2003, 103-117 [PDF]

62. Sun M, Tang J., Unsteady aerodynamic force generation by a model fruit fly wing in flapping motion. J. Exp. Biol., 205, 2002, 55-70

63. Sun M, Tang J., Lift and power requirements of hovering flight in Drosophila virilis. J. Exp. Biol., 205, 2002, 2413-2427

64. Lan SL, Sun M., Aerodynamic properties of a wing performing unsteady motions at low Reynolds number. Acta. Mechanica, 149, 2001,135-147

65. Sun M, Hamdani H., A study on the mechanism of high-lift generation by an airfoil in unsteady motion at low Reynolds number. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 17, 2001, 97-11

66. Lan SL, Sun M., Aerodynamic force and flow structures of two airfoils in flapping motions. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 17, 2001, 310-331

67. Hamdani H, Sun M., Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of an airfoil in some unsteady motions at small Reynolds number. Acta Mechanica, 145, 2000, 173-187

 

Videos

1) Eristalis tenax (Dronefly) hovering

2) Eristalis tenax (Dronefly) making saccade (turning right)

3) Eristalis tenax (Dronefly) making saccade (turning left)

4) Episyphus balteatus (Hoverfly) hovering

5) Episyphus balteatus (Hoverfly) rolling

6) Episyphus balteatus (Hoverfly) making saccade (turning left)

7) Eristalis tenax (Dronefly) take-off

8) Drosophila virilis (Fruitfly) voluntary take-off

9) Drosophila virilis (Fruitfly) hovering

10) Drosophila virilis (Fruitfly) forward flight

11) Drosophila virilis (Fruitfly) upward flight

12) Vegetable leafminer (Liriomyza sativae) hovering

13) Eristalis tenax (Dronefly) forward flight

14) Drosophila Melanogaster (Fruitfly) landing (movie S1)   (movie S2)

15) Drosophila virilis (Fruitfly) upward flight(2018)

16) Near hovering flight of small wasp (Encarsia formosa) (EF1)

17) Hovering flight of biting midge (MA1)

18) Hovering flight of biting midge (MB1)

19) Hovering flight of gall midge (AS1)

20) Near hovering flight of thrip (FO1)

21) Forward flight of Encarsia formosa Gahan